The Present Perfect tense

  • The Present Perfect is often accompanied by the adverbs ever, never, just, already, of late, lately, yet. They are placed before the notional verb, of late, lately at the end, - yet, already both ways.

    I have not (yet) answered this letter (yet).

    He's just returned.

    I've seen several interesting film of late.

    Note: In American English both the Present Perfect and the Past Indefinite are used with adverb just.

    I've just seen him = I just saw him.

  • The Present Perfect is also used for announcements of something that has happened.

    The lecturer has fallen ill.

    Ivanov has broken his leg.

    President's daughter has kidnapped.

  • The Present Perfect can be used emphatically instead of the Present Indefinite in adverbial clauses of time when the speaker wants to emphasize that the action in the principal clause will only take place after the action in the subordinate clause.

    You will go for a walk after you have done all your lessons.

  • The Present Perfect Inclusive denotes an action, which began in the past, has been going on for a certain period of time and is still going on now. Normally, the Present Perfect Continuous is used here and the Present Perfect replaces it when the Present Perfect Continuous cannot be used.

    I have known him for about ten years.

    I've been married for five years.

  • The Present Perfect is used in statements of the above type where the action refers to the past but the speaker means that it holds good for the present.

    I've always preferred tragedy to comedy.

    I've always preferred tragedy to comedy.

    The theory of numbers has always attracted all gifted mathematicians.

    Note: After the Present Perfect of the verb to be all prepositions of place (in London) are replaced by the preposition of direction (to London).

    Have you ever been to London?